attend to both people and processes.
Managers are leaders working to improve the
system with the help of the people in the
- to stabilise the system and then
- to improve the system
- on the basis of data which covers all
aspects of the processes involved
- input data (what is known or
- process data (what is happening)
- output data (what the results are:
costs and benefits)
Managers work with information AND knowledge.
Much of the key knowledge is provided by those who work in the system.
Thus "a manager is responsible for the application and
performance of knowledge" (Peter Drucker). When processed
data becomes information. Information confirms or challenges the
knowledge that we choose to apply in the operation and improvement of
for managers to ask those they 'supervise and
'"To help you do your job
easily & well
- What can I do more of, and,
- What can I do less of?"
system is the task for managers
- make information freely available:
purpose, processes, values ...
- build cooperation & teams
- reduce internal competition and other
- identify the system's constraint
- apply effort & resources to reduce
& remove the constraint on the system
- apply PDSA
- reduce variation
- improve the average
- there is always a constraint (Goldratt)
optimising the system does not mean optimising
each part separately. An orchestra with all
sections performing at the maximum level only
produces a cacophony!!!
Teachers as Managers
(teachers are managers of classes) must consult
with the people in their system (students
work in classes) to ensure that the system in
which they work (the school and classes) is
such that students have the greatest probability
of being successful learners.
- The best managers understand and are able
to communicate their system (its
inputs, processes outputs)
- And also which people (contributors
& recipients) are part of the system and
in what way they are part of the
- As managers we are not the final arbiters
of what should be. Rather managers are
servants of the people who work in
- It is very common to grossly underestimate
to value of knowledge about a
system held by people in a system.
- The best managers lead the task of
collecting and organising data about
the system (studying the system).
- It is everyone's task to observe what is
- The best managers lead continuous
improvement of the system by utilising
the plan-do-study-act cycle.
- Working on the people won't get the
results we want, Control reduces people's
- Managers also need to remember that their
system is part of larger
- People skills are not for working on
people. People skills are for making
it easier for the people with whom we work.
- Change from control to leadership