Using the Planner
Tutorials & Workshops
About the Planner
Levels of response
Using knowledge to constructing better practices
The fundamental principle here is that knowledge,
and ongoing conversations cannot be meaningfully separated:
we use data/information in everyday conversations)
to continually construct and reconstruct the knowledge and
to make sense of what is happening
to be able to act
and thus respond to what is happening
And it is the actions that make a difference!!
Based on the above model there are
three zones of knowledge work (each with its own sets of practices)
we all engage in and that need attention
acting in situations: e.g., teaching, supervising, supporting,
learning, responding, initiating....
information processing based on data derived from the
situation and/or introduced information (plans, policies, expectations...)
making (shared) sense of our activity, experiences and the
information at hand in everyday conversations
designing and committing to responses (actions
Knowledge is constructed in conversations (sometimes with
our self) as we attempt to make sense of our (shared) activities and
experiences. This sense-making leads to insights, hopes and/or concerns.
And it is certainly much more than just collecting data about
situations!! That is called record keeping.
"Knowledge is a voluntary act, if people trust each other
they will share. If they work together and create interdependencies then they
will share. If the context requires it even political rivals will share. Good
management (including knowledge management) is about creating the right sort of
environment and interactions." - Dave Snowden
We continually construct (and reconstruct) our knowledge
to be able to respond to situations (act) with which we engage. In doing
so we may give consideration to (make sense of)
our observations of the immediate and related situations
our experiences and activities (current and previous)
information provided by others (their hopes, concerns,
experiences, observations, requirements...)
possible futures (anticipated future experiences)
the framework of rules, values and practices that
applies in our community/school...
the tools that are available to us
To be successful we need to be able to make responses that are
matched to the situation. The wider the range of situations to be resolved, the
greater variety of responses required (law of requisite variety).
The Support Planner is a structured tool (database) that allows
groups of users
considerable flexibility in how they manage the data. The aim has been to
match the Planner components to the everyday activities that
enable users to readily construct the knowledge required to
undertake their everyday activities from the data collected
enable users to readily give an account of their actions
the core strategy in the above approach has been to minimize
'hard wiring' of options in the Planner
this in turn enhances professional learning as users re-construct
their practices in response to the possibilities that arise from
the flexibility of the Planner, eg, through the use of clever
Concepts to Knowledge
It is necessary to continually construct and reconstruct
- Concepts* - how we recognize things
- Data - records of events, characteristics,
- Information - organized, selected &/or summarized data
- Knowledge* - related information to enable prediction as
a basis for effective action
- Wisdom - knowing if and when to act on the basis of the available
in a process of on-going 'sense making'.
[* requires direct human
Data to Knowledge
Most cost-effective action is well informed action! This means
making sense of our experiences and responses (actions) by having and
- core concepts: identifying what is really meaningful
- easy access to the quality data: timely,
comprehensive, well presented
- easy maintenance: minimum data and helpful data
- key information: that prompts and informs best action
- effective action: leads to success and well-being
Only knowledge related to physical laws is current (we can assume with
some confidence that such knowledge is always true in equivalent situations)
All other knowledge is at best 'historical' - it was true if we
understood it correctly, hence, knowledge needs to be continually constructed
and reconstructed. For current purposes, this 'knowledge' is usually information
'Knowledge' is not transferable because it moves down a level when it
- One person's knowledge become information for the next person
- One person's information becomes data for the next
And the data exchanged depends on the related concepts held by the recipient:
"The message communicated is the message received".
Example: a teacher's deep knowledge of the often
incredibly difficult circumstances, and limited capabilities, of many his/her students and
their families becomes data (number of suspensions, literacy benchmarks)
by the time it reaches the school system.
Implications: Since being able to respond (action) requires
knowledge (rather than data)
- it is usually necessary to reconstruct the required knowledge from the
- organizations need to be knowledge driven and not just data driven
Information processing (Summerdale)
- Define – what do I really want to know?
- Locate – where can I find what I need?
- Select – what data do I really need?
- Gather – how can I bring it together
- Organize – how can I make it easy to use?
- Present – how can I make it available?
- Assess – what am I learning from this?
Only people can make sense of information
Tasks with information
- identify key data & likely sources
- organize into information
- consider related information à knowledge
- in a convenient, meaningful & timely fashion
Information tools are used for action
Rationale for using a database
(an information tool)
- everyone's actions are well informed
- helps achieve success & well-being for all
Design & development
- Customize database to procedures
- Working knowledge - data entry, reports
- Cost effectiveness - depends on
- whole school arrangements,
- consistency of use,
- integration into everyday activities…
Knowledge underpins the student support cycle