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 School Improvement:  Essential Knowledge
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There are many things that one must know in order to properly manage and develop a system, including the following which tends to be something of a hierarchy from the ideal to the pragmatic.  While each term appears only once in the 'hierarchy' in everyday use they may be used at various levels leading to ambiguity and uncertainty...


  • Purposes - desired outcomes
    • Mission - things to be achieved
    • Vision - how things will be when mission is achieved, usually expressed in terms of experiences that are valued
  • Paradigms current, emerging and possible future mental models
    • Philosophy
    • World view
    • Scenarios
    • Dominant logic
  • Context
    • Values
    • Critical success factors
    • SWOT 
  • Principles - guidelines for acceptable and successful practice
  • Policies - courses of action that are expected, supported, required ...
    • Guidelines
    • Regulations
    • Rules
    • Responsibilities
    • Protocols
  • Operations 
    • Systems - ways of carrying out functions 
    • Processes - arrangement of tasks & responsibilities over time
    • Organization - structures relating people, tasks and resources
    • Infrastructure - equipment, facilities, services... associated with the endeavour
    • Programs - ways in which tasks are grouped & related
    • Procedures - ways in which processes are enacted
    • Resources - the means for undertaking tasks
    • Roles and relationships - who will undertake the tasks
    • Activities and Tasks - things to be done
    • Outputs - things that are produced by the activity (or inactivity)
    • Outcomes  - actual results that emerge in the lives of the people, organizations 
  • Change and Development
    • How to improve 
      • Stabilise the system
      • Align - all the above elements in time, place, style...
      • Refine - improve all the above:   plan - do - study - act
      • Redesign - change some of the above to make it even better
    • How to change
      • What to change
      • What to change to
      • How to cause the change